Born: 3 February 1859 in Rheydt, Rhine Province, Mönchengladbach, Germany.
Died: 3 February 1935 in Germany.
Hugo Junkers was born on 3 February 1859 and became an groundbreaking aeroplane designer and engineer. In 1915, Hugo Junkers initiated a major change in materials used for the construction of aeroplanes, towards all-metal, cantilever-winged monoplane aircraft that had little to no external bracing. As opposed to the old fashioned designs from wood and fabric materials braced by wire rigging.
Hugo Junkers is primarily recognised in association with aircraft bearing his name. This includes such he reluctantly developed for the German Empire during the First World War, as well as civil aircraft designs between the wars which were produced by Junkers Flugzeugwerke (Junkers Aircraft Works). Hugo Junkers was a peaceful man which did not sit well with the National Socialists. Hugo Junkers died on 3 February 1935 and wasn't involved with the development of Junkers military aircraft for the Luftwaffe before the Second World War.
Hugo Junkers was born in Rheydt, Rhine Province, Mönchengladbach, Germany and studied in Charlottenburg and Aachen. Hugo Junkers was a professor of mechanical engineering at Aachen between 1897 and 1912. Working as an engineer, Hugo Junkers devised, patented, and exploited gas engines, heaters, a calorie meter and other inventions.
Hugo Junkers aeronautical career began early, it was only when he was in his 50s that he had farsighted ideas of metal aeroplanes and flying wings, but always realities of war dragged him back. During the First World War the government forced Hugo Junkers to concentrate on aircraft production. During 1915, Hugo Junkers developed and designed the world's first practical all metal aircraft, the Junkers J 1 Blechesel (Sheetmetal Donkey), which was on display in a Berlin museum until the start of the Second World War, during 1918 Hugo Junkers created the world's first low-winged single seat fighter aircraft, the Junkers D.I. Nevertheless, the Junkers DI Didn't begin production until 1918. Hugo Junkers also developed a two seat fighter version, the Junkers CL.I. which had an armoured fuselage, the Junkers J.I, regarded as the best German ground attack aircraft of the war.
The Junkers F.13 from 1919 was the first of numerous successful civil aircraft designs by Junkers Flugzeugwerke including the Junkers Ju 52/3m from 1932. With a assortment of business enterprises Junkers was also active in starting and developing fledgeling airlines around the world at first with the aim of selling his aircraft. Many airlines benefited from Hugo Junkers participation these include Deutsche Luft Hansa and Lloyd Aéreo Boliviano. Nevertheless, various business ventures failed due to the 1930s depression or political problems that seriously interfered with good engineering plans. Nevertheless Hugo Junkers always had more ideas, the massive four engined G.38, nicknamed Der Grosse Dessauer, delivered to Luft Hansa made no commercial trips for many months Hugo Junkers repeatedly recalled the G.38 to the factory for improvements.
Hugo Junkers was a socialist and a pacifist. Because of these reasons, Hugo Junkers had numerous altercations with German leadership. During 1917 the government forced him into partnership with Anthony Fokker to guarantee wartime production targets would be met.
In the 1920s in Germany and amongst Hugo Junkers' workers there was a huge variety of political views. About every aspect of the business, and its surroundings. Since members of all the different groups were represented in Junkers, aviation offered the hope for national renewal. Their varied views led to lively internal corporate politics. In 1926, unable to make government loan repayments after a failed venture to build planes for the Soviet Union, Hugo Junkers lost control of most of his businesses.
During 1933 the new National Socialist government decided that they'd take ownership of Junkers patents and control of Hugo Junkers remaining companies. Due to the threat of imprisonment Hugo Junkers finally relented, although to little help because a year later Hugo Junkers was under house arrest a year later Hugo Junkers died.
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