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Saturday, 4 April 2015

Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel

Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel

Career:

Branch: Kaiserliche Heer / Reichsheer /  Heer
Born: 2 January 1886 in Berlin, Germany.
Died: 30 August 1944 in Plötzensee Prison in Berlin, Germany.

Ranks:
General der Infanterie 1 April 1939
Generalleutnant 1 October 1937
Generalmajor 1 October 1935
Oberst 1 December 1932
Oberstleutnant 1 February 1930
Major 1 January 1925
Hauptmann 1 February 1924
Oberleutnant
Leutnant 27 January 1906
Fähnrich

Decorations:
Iron Cross 1914
2nd Class
1st Class
Cross of Honor for Combatants
Clasp to the Iron Cross
2nd Class
1st Class
Armed Forces Service Awards
Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 21 August 1941
German Cross in Silver 14 February 1944

Commands:
5. Kompanie, in 3. (Preuß.) Infanterie-Regiment
Takes command on 1 February 1924
Ends command on

II. Bataillons, 5. (Preuß.) Infanterie-Regiment
Takes command on 1929
Ends command on

30. Infanterie-Division
Takes command on 4 February 1938
Ends command on

II. Armeekorps
Takes command on 30 May 1940
Ends command on 21 June 1940

17. Armee
Takes command on 22 February 1941
Ends command on 5 October 1941

Personal Information:

Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel was born on 2 January 1886 in Berlin, Germany and was a serving member of the Wehrmacht Heer during the Second World War and managed to attain the rank of General der Infanterie and also participated in the 20 July assassination plot to kill Adolf Hitler. Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel went on to command the following 5. Kompanie, in 3. (Preuß.) Infanterie-Regiment, II. Bataillons, 5. (Preuß.) Infanterie-Regiment, 30. Infanterie-Division, II. Armeekorps and 17. Armee

Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel joined the Kaiserliche Heer straight from school in 1904, and in the World War I, Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel was a general staff officer. After the war Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel served in the Reichsheer.

On 1 February 1924 Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel was promoted to Hauptmann, and in 1925 was promoted to Major, Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel was then given command of the II. Bataillons, 5. (Preuß.) Infanterie-Regiment (2nd Battalion of the (Prussian) 5th Infantry Regiment) based at Neuruppin. In 1933 Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel was promoted to the rank of Oberst he was appointed head of the Fremde Heere ( T 3) (Foreign Armies ( T 3)) branch of the General Staff of the Army. During 1935 Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel published a memo in which he combined anti-Bolshevism with anti-Semitism. During 1936 Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel was promoted to the rank of Generalmajor and given command of the 30. Infanterie-Division (30th Infantry Division) which was stationed in Lübeck. On 27 August 1937 Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel was promoted to the rank of Generalleutnant, and then appointed Deputy Chief of the Generalstab des Heeres (General Staff of the Army) On 30 May 1940 Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel was given command of the II. Armeekorps (2nd Army Corps).

In 1938, the Blomberg-Fritsch Affair and the Sudeten Crisis led to a dampening of Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel's enthusiasm for the National Socialist regime in Germany. It was during this time that Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel made contact with the Schwarze Kapelle (Black Orchestra), uncovering the secret plan for the invasion of Czechoslovakia.

On 20 December 1940 to 4 October 1941, Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel was promoted to General of Infantry and was commandant of the 17. Armee (17th Army). On 22 June 1941, after the launch of Operation Barbarossa, Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel successfully led 17. Armee (17th Army) across southern Soviet Russia on the Eastern Front. Whilst under Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel's command, the 17. Armee (17th Army) achieved victory at Battle of Kiev and the Battle of Uman.

Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel also participated in the military resistance plans, aimed at expelling Adolf Hitler and the National Socialists, but these plans were for the most part given up after the Munich Agreement. In spite of Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel participation in the military resistance plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler, considerable archival evidence suggests that during his tenure as commandant of the 17. Armee (17th Army) and military governor of France, Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel was involved in war crimes. In Russia, Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel signed many orders authorising reprisals against civilians for partisan attacks and closely cooperated with the Einsatzgruppen in their large-scale executions of Jews. Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel rebuked his soldiers not for the murder of noncombatants but for disorderly way it was undertaken. Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel ordered his troops to concentrate on Jews and communist civilians.

During March 1942, Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel was made Militärbefehlshaber Frankreich (military commander in France), and in this position, Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel , along with his personal assistant Caesar von Hofacker, went head with their plans to rid Germany of Adolf Hitler. Caesar von Hofacker functioned as Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel's link with Claus von Stauffenberg, who finally carried out the assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler at the Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) in East Prussia.

On 20 July 1944, Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel put his part of the plot into operation. This mainly required having Hans Otfried von Linstow, who was only told of the plot on that same day, round up all Schutzstaffel (Waffen SS) and Gestapo officers in Paris and incarcerate them. Even so, when it became evident that the assassination attempt in East Prussia had failed, Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel was not able to win over Günther von Kluge to support the insurrection and was coerced to let his prisoners go. Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel was then recalled from Paris, capital of France, Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel stopped at Verdun and tried to commit suicide by shooting himself in the head with a handgun on the banks of the Meuse River. Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel only managed to blind himself. Whilst Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel was in imprisonment, he reportedly shouted out the name Erwin Rommel in hysteria. Because of this Erwin Rommel was soon put under surveillance by the Waffen Schutzstaffel (Waffen SS).
Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel and Caesar von Hofacker were both apprehended by the Gestapo, and Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel was brought before the Volksgerichtshof (People's Court) on 30 August 1944. Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel was found guilty of high treason and hanged the same day at Plötzensee Prison in Berlin, Germany.

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